What will it cost government and companies to upgrade from IPv4 to
IPv6? The NIST/RTI study estimates $25.4 billion between 1997 and 2025.
About $1.4 billion of the burden remains on infrastructure vendors,
$23.3 billion for users, $593 million for application suppliers, $136
million for Internet service providers. Masud questions if they
factored in operations costs for ISPs.